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4th Annual Congress on Biofuels and Biopolymers, will be organized around the theme “the promotion of biofuels for a better environment.”
Biofuels 2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Biofuels 2023
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Advanced biofuels are fuels which will be processed from various varieties of biomass. First generation biofuels are processed from the sugars and vegetable oils fashioned in tillable crops, which may be swimmingly extracted applying standard technology. In comparison, advanced biofuels are made from lignocellulose biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it tougher to extract the requisite fuel. Advanced biofuel technologies have been devised because first generation biofuels manufacture has major limitations. First generation biofuel processes square measure convenient however restrained in most cases: there's a limit on top of that they can't yield enough biofuel while not forbidding food provides and variety. Many first-generation biofuels have faith in subsidies and don't value competitive with prevailing fossil fuels like oil, and some of them yield only limited greenhouse gas emissions savings. When considering emissions from production and transport, life-cycle assessment from first-generation biofuels typically approaches those of ancient fossil fuels. Advanced biofuels can aid resolving these complications and can impart a greater proportion of global fuel supply affordable, sustainable and with larger environmental interests.
Biopolymers are polymers made by living organisms; in alternative words, they’re compound biomolecules. Biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently guaranteed to make larger structure. There are 3 main categories of biopolymers, classified in keeping with the monomeric units used and therefore the structure of the biopolymers formed; polynucleotides(RNA and DNA), that square measure long polymers composed of thirteen or a lot of ester monomers, polypeptides that are short polymers of amino acids and polysaccharides, that are usually linear guaranteed compound macromolecules structure. Other samples of biopolymers embody rubber, suberin and animal pigment polymer.
Renewable Energy is usually printed as any energy resource’s which is able to be naturally renew or regenerated over a quick time which is directly derived from the sun (solar energy),indirectly from sun like wind energy, hydropower energy, bioenergy ,or from alternative mechanisms of natural resources (geothermal energy, periodic event energy).Renewable energy solely embraces energy derived from organic and natural resources it doesn’t include inorganic resources.REN21 is associate energy policy network that brings government and non-governmental organisation on and completely different organisations to be told from one another and build successes before renewable energy. Renewable energy that is replaced by a method, because the rate of process is quicker the speed is consumed. Renewable energy is energy that's generated from natural processes that area unit ceaselessly replenished. This includes daylight, geothermal heat, wind energy, tides, water, and various forms of biomass. This energy can't be exhausted and is continually revived. Biomass, could be a renewable organic matter, and may embrace biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, like wood, waste, and alcohol fuels.
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel utilized for aircraft. It is reckoned by some to be the paramount means by which the aviation industry can diminish its carbon footprint. After a multi-year technical analysis from aircraft makers, engine manufacturers and oil companies, biofuels were advocated for commercial use in July 2011. Since then, some airlines have evaluated with using of biofuels on commercial flights. A fuel could also be a fuel formed by natural processes, like anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient activity. Such organisms and their succeeding fossil fuels usually have AN age of numerous years, and generally over 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and embody crude, coal, and gas. Commonly used derivatives of fossil fuels embody lamp oil and gas. Fossil fuels vary from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios (like methane), to liquids (like petroleum), to non volatilisable materials composed of nearly pure carbon, like anthracite. Methane may be found in organic compound fields either alone, related to oil, or within the variety of gas clathrates.
Biobased biopolymers offer advantages not only on the raw materials side but also on the disposal side through certain promising end-of-life (EOL) options. Especially waste disposal with energy recovery has an added benefit, which lies in gaining carbon neutral energy while allowing multiple uses after possible recycling. The Commission said that all of the composts containing biodegradable polymer materials could be classified using a risk assessment system at a higher toxicity level. Biodegradable biopolymer waste can be treated by aerobic degradation, composting, or anaerobic digestion .When biopolymers are composted or digested, their individual elements are recycled naturally, in particular their carbon and hydrogen content.
Polymers have become a necessary commodity of everyday life and are used for manufacturing of hundreds of things of our daily use from house hold items to transportation and communication. Polymers are also used in medicine; however, all the polymers cannot be used for this purpose. For medical applications, a polymer should have the following properties: (a) bio-safe and non-toxic which means that it should be non-carcinogenic, non-teratogenicity, non-mutagenic, non-cytotoxic, non-pyrogenic, nonhemolytic, non-allergenic and chronically non-inflammative etc. (b) must be effective in terms of functionality, durability, and performance (c) must be interfacial, mechanically and biologically biocompatible and (d) sterilizable through different techniques like autoclave, dry heating, electron beam irradiation etc. It should also be chemically inert and very stable i.e. it should not decay or disintegrate to give obnoxious toxic products with the passage of time especially when it is intended to be implanted within body.
Cellulose the most generous natural biopolymer on the earth, synthesized by plants, algae and also some species of bacteria and microorganisms. The Plant by-product polysaccharide and Black Carbon (BC) have an equivalent chemical composition however disagree in structure and physical properties. The BC network structure comprises cellulose Nano fibrils 3-8 nm in diameter, and the crystalline regions are been the normal cellulose I. The properties such as the Nano metric structure, unique physical and mechanical properties together produce higher purity that lead to great number of commercial products. Lingo cellulosic agricultural by products area unit an intensive and low cost supply for polysaccharide fibers. Agro-based Biofibers have the design, properties and style that build them appropriate to be used as composite, textile, pulp and paper manufacture.
Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems.
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of view they can be classified into three main categories: thermoplastics, elastomers and synthetic fibers. They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as honey, glue, etc
In search of novel Advanced Materials solutions and keeping an eye on the goal of sustainable production and consumption, bioplastics have several (potential) benefits. The use of renewable resources to produce bioplastics the key for increasing resource productivity, the resources can be cultivated on an (at least) annual basis, the principle of cascade use, as biomass can primarily be used for materials and then for energy generation, a reduction of the carbon footprint and GHG egressions of some materials and products – saving fossil fuels resources, and for substituting them step by step.
The use of biopolymers could markedly increase as more durable versions are developed, and the cost to manufacture these bio-plastics continues to go fall. Bio-plastics can replace conventional plastics in the field of their applications also and can be used in different sectors such as food packaging, plastic plates, cups, cutlery, plastic storage bags, storage containers or other plastic or composite materials items you are buying and therefore can help in making environment sustainable. Bio-based polymeric materials are closer to the reality of replacing conventional polymers than ever before. Nowadays, biobased polymers are commonly found in many applications from commodity to hi-tech applications due to advancement in biotechnology and public awareness.
Biogas commonly refers to a mixture of various gases formed by the disintegration of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be manufactured from raw matters such as agricultural waste, municipal waste, manure, plant material, green waste, and sewage or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source and in diverse cases exerts a limited carbon footprint. Biogas can be manufactured by fermentation of biodegradable materials or anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms, which disintegrates material inside an isolated system. Biogas is basically methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small traces of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), siloxanes and moisture.
Biodiesel indicates an animal fat-based or vegetable oil diesel fuel comprising of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is customarily made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., soybean oil, vegetable oil, animal fat (tallow)) with an alcohol generating fatty acid esters. Biodiesel is suggested to be utilized in standard diesel engines and is thus well-defined from the vegetable and waste oils used to operate fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used singly, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be utilized as heating oil.
Several technologies for converting bioenergy are commercial today while others are being piloted or in research and development. There are four types of conversion technologies currently available, each appropriate for specific biomass types and resulting in specific energy products such as Thermal Conversion, Thermochemical conversion, Biochemical conversion, Chemical conversion. The Biomass Technologies include Liquid Biofuels from Biomass and Cellulosic Ethanol from Biomass.
Biologically synthesized alcohols, most frequently ethanol, and rarely propanol and butanol, are formed by the reaction of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches, or cellulose. Biobutanol (also called biogasoline) is often asserted to provide a direct stand-in for gasoline because it can be used precisely in a gasoline engine. Ethanol fuel is the most widely used biofuel worldwide. Alcohol fuels are formed by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, sugar beets, corn, molasses, sugar cane and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic liquors such as whiskey, can be produced (such as potato and fruit waste, etc.). The ethanol manufacturing methods applied are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches), distillation, fermentation of the sugars and drying. Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a substitute for gasoline; it can be blended with gasoline to any concentration. Current car petrol engines can operate on mixes of up to 15% bioethanol along with petroleum/gasoline. Ethanol has lesser energy density than that of gasoline; this implies that it takes more fuel to generate the same amount of work. An asset of ethanol is its higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline accessible at roadside gas stations, which permits the rise of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. In high-altitude locations, some states direct a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to lower atmospheric pollution emissions.
Whole green composites are the composite materials that are made from both renewable resource based polymer (biopolymer) and biofiller. Whole green composites are recyclable, renewable, triggered biodegradable and could reduce the dependency on the fossil fuel to a great extent when used in interior applications. Whole green composites could have major applications in automotive interiors, interior building applications and major packaging areas. Despite the large number of recent reviews on green composites defined as biopolymers or bio-derived polymers reinforced with natural fibers for bioprocessing of materials, limited investigation has taken place into the most appropriate applications for these materials
Biocomposites is an preparation material shaped by a network and a funding of characteristic filaments. Green composite are detached as a bio composite consolidated by steady filaments with biodegradable pitches. They are called green complexes, significantly in light of their degradable and cost-effective properties, which can be effortlessly arranged without hurting the earth. On account of its durability, green composites are significantly used to expand the life cycle of matters with short life. An substitute class of Biocomposites called crossover bio composite which be contingent on various kinds of filaments into a solitary grid. The strands can be concocted or characteristic, and can be arbitrarily joined to produce the hybridization.
Bio plastics or biodegradable plastics are by chemical nature polyhydroxy alkanoates or PHAs. They are currently being produced in large amount by microbial fermentation process in industries. Among all the polyhydroxy alkanoates, polyhydroxy butyrate or PHB is the most important one as bio plastics.
The conventional plastics, made from coal or oil are not biodegradable. They survive 100s of years and are a major source of environmental pollution, often resulting in ecological imbalance. A heavy demand for biodegradable plastic materials has generated in the modern world. There are some attempts to chemically synthesise biodegradable polyesters such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid. The production of polyhydroxy alkanoates by fermentation is the preferred process for production of biodegradable plastics.
Biodegradable plastics can be composed of bio-plastics, which are plastics made from renewable raw materials. There are normally two forms of biodegradable plastic, injection molded and solid. The solid forms normally are used for items such as food containers, leaf collection bags, and water bottles.
Bioplastics can also be processed in very similar ways to petrochemical plastics such as injection moulding, extrusion and thermoforming. To improve their tensile strength, bioplastic polymers can be blended with their co-polymers or with other polymers
Bioenergy is renewable energy made accessible from materials acquired from biological origin. Biomass is any organic matter which has deposited sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may comprise wood, straw, wood waste, sugarcane, manure, and many other by-products from different agricultural processes. In its most exclusive sense it is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel obtained from biological sources. In its wider sense it includes biomass, the biological matter utilized as a biofuel, as well as the social, scientific, economic and technical fields related with utilizing biological sources for energy. This is a common misbelief, as bioenergy is the energy cultivated from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy stored in the fuel.
Biomass is organic matter extracted from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be utilized as a source of energy and it most often directs to plants or plant-based matter which are not used for food or feed, and are precisely called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or secondarily after transforming it to numerous forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be attained by various methods which are mainly categorized into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Biomass is a renewable source of fuel to yield energy since waste residues will always prevail – in